Recommended Readings

 Nuclear College

Shadows on the Wall: Deterrence and Disarmament (National Institute Press: Fairfax, VA 2020) by Keith B. Payne examines and contrasts the three alternative philosophical positions about the nature of the international system and patterns of human behavior that underlie three competing narratives seen in U.S. public debate regarding nuclear deterrence and disarmament. For over six decades, these three competing narratives, built on contrary philosophical traditions, have been the basis for contending positions regarding U.S. nuclear policy—ranging from advocacy for complete global nuclear disarmament to advocacy for the maintenance of robust U.S. nuclear capabilities for deterrence. Each of these three different narratives is based on different speculative expectations about developments in the international system and future patterns of human behavior. Given the inherent uncertainties about future developments in the international system and human behavior, none of these narratives can be deemed to objectively correct, or certainly wrong. They may, nevertheless, be judged to entail different levels of prudence for U.S. and allied security. https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/ASPJ/Book-Reviews/Article/2128840/shadows-on-the-wall-deterrence-and-disarmament/

Always At War: Organizational Culture in Strategic Air Command, Deailie 
Overview: Always at War is the story of Strategic Air Command (SAC) during the early decades of the Cold War. More than a simple history, it describes how an organization dominated by experienced World War II airmen developed a unique culture that thrives to this day. In the aftermath of World War II and the creation of an independent air service, the Air Force formed SAC because of a belief in the military potential of strategic bombing centralized under one commander. As the Cold War intensified, so did SAC's mission. Strategic Air Command evolved as it responded to the external environment created by the Cold War. In order to prepare SAC's "warriors" to daily fight an enemy they did not see, as well as to handle the world's most dangerous arsenal, the command, led by General Curtis LeMay, emphasized security, personal responsibility, and competition among the command. SAC became synonymous with the Cold War and its culture forever changed the Air Force as well as those who served.
The Great American Gamble, Payne
Overview: The Great American Gamble examines the past, present and prospective future of U.S. deterrence theory, strategic forces, nuclear weapons and policy. It provides a detailed explanation of the competing schools of deterrence theory that emerged during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Based on an extensive review of previously classified documents, it demonstrates how and why U.S. Government policies came to adhere to the guidelines established by the theory of deterrence popularly called the balance of terror. Dr. Payne presents the assumptions, judgments and hopes that led U.S. policy makers in consecutive Republican and Democratic administrations to that choice. Looking forward, the book assesses to what extent the basic tenets of Cold War academic deterrence theory provides useful guidance to contemporary strategic policy given contemporary threats and conditions. 
The Logic of American Nuclear Strategy, Kroenig
Overview: Advances a new theory of nuclear deterrence: the superiority-brinkmanship synthesis theory - Provides a novel theoretical explanation for why nuclear (or strategic) superiority matters - Conducts a systematic empirical examination of the effects of the nuclear balance of power on international politics, analyzing new data from 1945 to the present - Offers concrete guidance to policymakers about how to design strategic nuclear posture
Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century, Rand
Overview: Deterrence remains a primary doctrine for dealing with the threat of nuclear weapons in the 21st century. The author reviews the history of nuclear deterrence and calls for a renewed intellectual effort to address the relevance of concepts such as first strike, escalation, extended deterrence, and other Cold War-era strategies in today's complex world of additional superpowers, smaller nuclear powers, and non-state actors.
U.S. Nuclear Weapons in the 21st Century, Roberts
Overview: This book is a counter to the conventional wisdom that the United States can and should do more to reduce both the role of nuclear weapons in its security strategies and the number of weapons in its arsenal. The case against nuclear weapons has been made on many grounds-including historical, political, and moral. But, Brad Roberts argues, it has not so far been informed by the experience of the United States since the Cold War in trying to adapt deterrence to a changed world, and to create the conditions that would allow further significant changes to U.S. nuclear policy and posture.


Guide to Nuclear Deterrence in the Age of Great-Power Competition Book, Lowther            
Overview: The “Guide to Nuclear Deterrence in the Age of Great-Power Competition” brings together twenty-two authors who dissect the complex strategic environment and explain how credible nuclear capability and deterrence are the bedrock of America’s defense in 2020 and beyond. This book breaks down the complicated strategic environment into easily digestible chapters to explain the critical roles strategic and nuclear deterrence play in defending our nation. The book is divided into three sections: deterrence and national security, America’s adversaries, and service contributions to deterrence. Chapters in the first section discuss the many facets of deterrence strategy and how deterrence fits into the nation’s larger approach to defending American interests. The second section is devoted to chapters that discuss the nuclear strategies of America’s great-power rivals and those adversaries who have or are seeking nuclear weapons. The final section offers a series of chapters discussing the Department of Defense and Department of Energy contributions to deterrence. Each chapter is designed to be read in about half an hour and cover the most important aspects of the given topic. When finished with the book, airmen will have a firm understanding of the mission they support and its critical contribution to national security. Download for Free at: http://ltri.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Guide-to-Nuclear-Deterrence-in-the-Age-of-Great-Power-Competition.pdf

Online Resource:
Nuclear Matters

Video: On Nuclear Deterrence - Maj. Gen. C. Donald Alston (retired)


 Cyber PCE

Cybersecurity and Cyberwar: What Everyone Needs to Know, Friedman
Cyberpower and National Security, Kramer, Starr, and Wentz
Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It, Clarke & Knake
Fatal System Error, Menn
Ghost Fleet, Cole & Singer
Ghost in the Wires: My Adventures as the World's Most Wanted Hacker, Mitnick
Glass Houses: Privacy, Secrecy, and Cyber Insecurity in a Transparent World, Brenner
Information Operations: Warfare and the Hard Reality of Soft Power, Armistead
Strategic Cyber Deterrence: The Active Cyber Defense Option, Jasper
Unrestricted Warfare, Liang & Xiangsui


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