Dr. Stephen C. Cain, Associate Professor Electrical Engineering

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Ph.D. University of Dayton, June 1995 – August 2001Funded by Research Assistantship from the National Science FoundationAreas of concentration: Image Processing and Remote Sensing

M.S.E.E. Michigan Technological University, August 1992 – June 1993
Funded by Teaching Assistantship and Research Assistantship from AFRL/DE
Areas of concentration: Image Processing and Remote Sensing


Argonne National Lab Student Exchange Program, June 1992 – August 1992
Studied at the Mexican Nuclear Research Institute
B.S.E.E. University of Notre Dame, August 1988 – May 1992
Funded by AFROTC Scholarship Areas of concentration: Signal Processing and Controls





              Richard D. Richmond and Stephen C. Cain, Direct Detection LADAR Systems, SPIE

              press, Bellingham, WA, 2010



Refereed Publications in Archival Journals:

 *Nicholas J. Yielding*, Stephen C. Cain, Michael D. Seal, "Statistical photocalibration of photodetectors for radiometry without calibrated light sources," Opt. Eng. Vol. 57 no. (1) DOI:014107 (25 January 2018)

David Becker* and Stephen C. Cain, “Improved space object detection using short-exposure image data with daylight background”, Applied Optics, Vol. 57,Issue 14, pp. 3968-3975 (2018)

 Stephen Cain and, Tatsuki Watts, “Non-Paraxial Fourier propagation tool for aberration analysis and point spread function calculation”, Optical Engineering, Vol. 55, Issue 8, DOI: 10.1117/1.OE.55.8.085104, (2016).

 *Tyler Hardy, Travis Blake and, Stephen Cain, “Unequal a priori probability multiple hypothesis testing in space domain awareness with the space surveillance telescope”, Applied Optics, Vol. 55, Issue 15, pp. 4036-4046, (2016).

*Tyler Hardy, Stephen Cain, *Jae Jeon, and Travis Blake, “Improving space domain awareness through unequal-cost multiple hypothesis testing in the space surveillance telescope”, Applied Optics, Vol. 54, Issue 17, pp. 5481-5494, (2015).

*J. Chris Zingarelli, Eric Pearce, Richard Lambour, Travis Blake, Curtis J. R. Peterson, and Stephen Cain, “Improving the Space Surveillance Telescope's Performance Using Multi-Hypothesis Testing”, The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 147, No. 5, pp. 111 (May 2014)

 * Zingarelli, John C; Cain, Stephen C, “Phase retrieval and Zernike decomposition using measured intensity data and the estimated electric field”, Applied Optics, Vol. 52 Issue 31, pp.7435-7444 (November 2013)

* Brian J. Neff, *Quentin D. MacManus, Stephen C. Cain, Richard K. Martin, “Image deblurring and near-real-time atmospheric seeing estimation through the employment of convergence of variance”, Volume 7, Issue 01, pp. 1312-1338 (January 2013)

*Brian Neff and Stephen Cain, “Multiple Surface Discrimination in 3-D FLASH Laser Radar While Minimizing the Effects of Diffraction”, Optical Engineering, Vol. 51, no. 5, 056201 pp 1-16, May 2012

 *Jason McMahon, Richard Martin and Stephen Cain, “Range Separation Performance and Optimal Pulse-Width Prediction of a 3-D FLASH Laser Detection and Ranging Using the Cramer-Rao Bound,” Applied Optics, Vol. 50, no. 17, pp 2559-2571, June 2011

*Paul F. Dolce and Stephen C. Cain, “3-D LADAR Range Estimation Using Expectation Maximization”, J. Appl. Remote Sens., Vol. 5, 053513 (February, 2011)

*M. W. Hyde  S. C. Cain, J. D. Schmidt and M. J. Havrilla “Material Classification of an Unknown Object Using Turbulence-Degraded Polarimetric Imagery”, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing., Vol. 49, no. 1, pp 264-276 (January, 2011)

*Donald. B. Dixon and Stephen C. Cain, “Image Recovery from Polarimetric, Non-Imaged Laser Speckle”, J. Appl. Remote Sens., Vol. 4, 043558(September, 2010)

*Jason R. McMahon, Richard K. Martin, and Stephen C. Cain, “Three-dimensional FLASH laser radar range estimation via blind deconvolution”, J. Appl. Remote Sens., Vol. 4, 043517 (March, 2010)

*D. LeMaster and S. Cain, “Multichannel blind deconvolution of polarimetric imagery,” Journal of the Optical Society of America A, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 2170-2176, September 2008

*S. Johnson and S. Cain, “Bound on range precision for shot-noise limited LADAR systems,” Applied Optics, vol. 47, no. 28, pp. 5147 5155, *J. Phillips and S. Cain, “Joint maximum likelihood estimator for pupil and image plane data,” Optical Engineering, vol. 47, no. 2, 026002, February 2008

*D. Strong and S. Cain,” Maximum a priori estimation of focus aberration in imaging systems,” Optical Engineering, vol. 46, no. 12, 127006, December 2007

 *A. Macdonald, S. Cain and M. Oxley, “Binary Weighted Averaging of an Ensemble of Coherently Collected Image Frames,” Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, pp. 1085-1100, April 2007.

*T. Blake, M. Goda, S. Cain and K. Jerkitis, “Enhancing the Resolution of Spectral Images from the AEOS Spectral Imaging Sensor,” Accepted for publication in Optical Engineering, vol 46, no 5,  057001, May 2007.

*A. Macdonald and S. Cain, “Parameterized Blind Deconvolution of Laser Radar Imagery using an Anisoplanatic OTF,” Optical Engineering, vol. 45, no. 11,  116001, November 2006

S. Cain, R. Richmond and E. Armstrong “Flash ladar range accuracy limits for returns from single opaque surfaces via Cramer-Rao bounds,” Applied Optics, vol. 45, no. 24,  pp. 6154- 6162, August 2006

*B. Formwalt and S. Cain, “Optimized Phase Screen Modeling for Optical Turbulence,”Applied Optics, vol. 45, no. 22, pp. 5657-5668, August 2006

*A. Macdonald, S. Cain and E. Armstrong, “MAP Image and Seeing Condition Estimation from Partially Coherent 2-D LIDAR Images,” Optical Engineering, vol. 45, no. 8, 086201, August 2006

*M. Gould and S. Cain, “Development of a fast chromotomographic spectrometer,” Optical Engineering Letters, vol. 44, no. 11, 110503, November 2005

*N. Abel, M. Marciniak, M. Haeri, S. Cain, “Wave-optics modeling of aberration effects in optical cross section measurements,” Optical Engineering, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1-8, August 2005

S. Cain, “Design of an image projection correlating wave-front sensor for adaptive optics,” Optical Engineering, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 1670-1681, July 2004

S. Cain, “Bayesian-Based Sub-Pixel Brightness Temperature Estimation From Multi-Channel Infrared GOES Radiometer Data,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 188-201, January 2004

S. Cain, M. Hayat and E. Armstrong, “An Efficient Projection Based Technique for Registering Images in the Presence of Fixed Pattern Noise,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1860-1872, December 2001.

M. Hayat, S. Torres, E. Armstrong, S. Cain and B. Yasuda, “Statistical Algorithm for Non-Uniformity Correction in Focal-Plane Arrays,” Applied Optics, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 772--780, August 1999.

M. S. Alam, J. Bognar, S. Cain and B. Yasuda, “Fast Registration and Reconstruction of Aliased Low Resolution Frames Using a Modified Maximum Likelihood Approach,” Applied Optics, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1319-1328, August 1998.


Recent Conference Involvement:

 Stephen C. Cain, "Super Resolution Imaging via Expectation-Maximization Estimation of Near Stellar Neighborhoods", SPIE Unconventional Imaging and Wavefront Sensing, San Diego, CA, August 2018

David Becker and Stephen Cain, “A Space Object Detection Algorithm using Fourier Domain Likelihood Ratio Test”, AMOS Technical Conference, Maui, HI Sept 2017.

 Stephen C.Cain, “Improved space object detection via scintillated short-exposure image data”, Proceedings of the SPIE 9982, Unconventional Imaging and Wavefront Sensing XII, San Diego, CA August 2017

*David Becker and Stephen C.Cain, “Improved space object detection using a Fourier likelihood ratio detection algorithm”, Proceedings of the SPIE 9982, Unconventional Imaging and Wavefront Sensing XII, San Diego, CA August 2017

*Nicholas J. Yielding and Stephen C.Cain, “Statistically Applied Non-Uniformity Correction”, Proceedings of the SPIE 9982, Unconventional Imaging and Wavefront Sensing XII, San Diego, CA August 2017



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